Five Billion Years Of Solitude Epub 12
LWCF does not operate the way a "true" trust fund would in the private sector. The fund is credited with deposits from specified sources, but the agencies can only spend money from the account if Congress appropriates the funds. Through FY2008, about $31 billion has been credited to the LWCF, and roughly half of that amount has been appropriated. Annual appropriations from LWCF have fluctuated widely throughout its history. Over the past five years, total LWCF appropriations have fallen from $488 million in FY2004 to $256 million in FY2008. The FY2008 appropriation consisted of $130 million for federal land acquisition, $25 million for state grants, $49 million for FWS Cooperative Endangered Species Grants, and $52 million for the FS's Forest Legacy Program. Debates continue over the level of appropriations from LWCF and the purposes for which the funds should be used.
five billion years of solitude epub 12
In 1994, Congress amended the PILT Act to more than double the authorized payments over five years, to adjust for inflation between 1976 and 1994, and to build in adjustments for future inflation. The two formulae used to calculate the authorized payment level for each county with eligible federal lands in FY2008 are:
In 2006, 37% of the coal, 11% of the natural gas, and 5% of the oil produced in the United States were derived from BLM managed lands. These resources generate large revenues.52 For FY2007, the total on-shore mineral revenues (including royalties, rents, and bonus bids) were $3.9 billion, a substantial increase over most previous years primarily due to higher oil and gas prices.
The NPS fiscal situation has contributed to, and is compounded by, a multi-billion dollar backlog of deferred maintenance.96 President Bush began an initiative in FY2002 to eliminate a then-estimated $4.9 billion maintenance backlog over five years. However, with better tools to inventory, measure, and prioritize maintenance, the NPS backlog estimate has nearly doubled, with a midpoint estimate of $9.6 billion (ranging from $6.12 billion to $13.11 billion) in 2007.